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Large Intestine and Bowel diagnostics – examination methods

Today, medicine has a wide range of diagnostic methods for highly accurate examination of a wide range of problems with the large intestine, anal canal, and perineum, as well as ample opportunities for the treatment of a number of diseases. The list of diagnostics includes instrumental and non-instrumental rectal examination methods, general analyzes, and a number of studies.

General examination by a doctor

The coloproctologist begins the examination by identifying complaints, examining a general plan, and collecting information. Examination plays an important role and helps to establish a diagnosis. With the help of an initial examination, you can notice a number of problems: bloating of the entire abdomen, some of its parts, peristalsis, the presence of a tumor, protrusion of the abdominal wall forward, and so on.

Bowel and Large Intestine Examination Methods?

Tapping or percussion allows you to determine the presence of accumulated fluid in the abdominal cavity, the presence of gases in it, flatulence, and also calculate the approximate limits of a swollen bowel loop.

Listening to murmurs or auscultation allows you to hear and assess peristalsis, identify signs of patency problems, and a number of other problems.

Feeling or so-called palpation of the abdomen is considered one of the most useful primary methods of determining:

excessive tension of the muscles of the abdominal cavity;
location, size, type, mobility of the tumor, as well as reduction of the spastic type of loops, ascites, and many other problems and pathologies.

When the examination of the perineum is completed, the doctor begins a digital examination of the rectum, and then anoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, depending on the specific situation. During the examination of the perianal zone, reflexes are checked in the form of contraction of the sphincter muscles with minor skin irritation around it.

Examination of the rectum with a finger

It is carried out if there are complaints of discomfort in the abdomen and in case of problems with the pelvic organs and gastrointestinal tract. The study is carried out using the index finger. Wearing a glove, the specialist carefully examines. To relax the muscles, the patient needs to push a little.

Method of sigmoidoscopy – rectoscopy

This method involves the introduction of a sigmoidoscope through the anal passage to a depth of twenty to thirty centimeters. Thanks to the magnifying optics used during the procedure, even the smallest disorders of the mucous membrane can be seen.

If there is a suspicion of poor quality of neoplasms, the doctor can select material for tissue analysis. Thanks to a biopsy, you can get an accurate answer about the type of a patient’s tumor. If you are over forty years old, then it is best to carry out rectoscopy at least once a year – this will prevent the development of malignant intestinal neoplasms.

The procedure is almost painless, but in some cases, a local anesthesia may be used. In order to correctly carry out sigmoidoscopy, one should thoroughly cleanse the large intestine from feces the day before the procedure. This can be done with bowel-relaxing drugs or with an enema.

Patients should follow a special diet, drink only tea in the evening, and conduct the study itself without taking any food before. Competent preparation for this kind of procedure allows you to get a guarantee of an accurate result, so you should not neglect it.


Anoscopy is a method of examining the intestines by examining it from the inside using a special anoscope device, which is inserted through the anal passage up to 14 centimeters in depth. Anoscopy is performed in the presence of complaints of painful sensations in the anal canal, bleeding, stool disorders, as well as suspicions of diseases of the rectum. Anoscopy complements the usual rectal examination. Preparation for anoscopy is no different from preparation for sigmoidoscopy and is also no less important and responsible.


Tissues for examining the causes of a tumor or polyp are taken using special endoscopic instruments. There are two types of biopsies “Target” or “Blind”. The first is carried out in the presence of suspicions of a tumor or Crohn’s disease, and the second with a high risk of diffuse intestinal damage.


Colonoscopy is a method of endoscopic diagnosis of diseases of the large intestine that involves the use of a colonoscope.

Often no anesthesia is needed to conduct a colonoscopic examination. Patients with severe anal pain require local anesthesia, and if there is significant tissue destruction, general anesthesia is used. Colonoscopy is a rather informative way of research only when the patient strictly follows the doctor’s prescriptions related to bowel cleansing. Vegetables, fruits, herbs, mushrooms, potatoes, and beans should be completely discarded. Only liquid and easily digestible food may be taken the day before the colonoscopy. Climification is carried out until pure water comes out.

Do not underestimate the importance of preparing for bowel examination procedures. Correct preparation is a guarantee of accurate results. In the course of the colonoscopic study, patients feel intestinal overflow with gases and the urge to defecate. After the study is completed, the air introduced into the intestine is sucked out through a special channel of the endoscope.

The patient may experience short-term slight discomfort. In case the feeling of intestinal overflow with gases has not passed, take a dozen tablets of activated carbon, washed down with boiled water at room temperature.

Laboratory research

A general analysis of feces allows you to detect blood, bile pigments, and parasites. Such an analysis allows you to detect the inflammatory process, invasion, composition, and condition of the flora, beginning ulcers, and so on. Testing your stool for occult blood can help identify bleeding in parts above the colon.

As a result of the analysis, it is possible to diagnose the presence of enlarged varicose veins of the gastrointestinal tract, peptic ulcers, dysentery, and many similar pathological conditions. It is worth noting that early diagnosis of intestinal diseases, just like any others, significantly increases the chances of early recovery and minimizes the consequences of the illness.

Diagnosis of intestinal cancer

Full-fledged manifestations of colon cancer do not appear immediately: patients often complain of discomfort in the abdomen, severe symptoms of intestinal upset, persistent constipation or diarrhea, significant and rapid weight loss, and very high fatigue. In the case of an actively developing disease, a deterioration of intestinal permeability may appear, and if the tumor has grown strongly, the patient may feel it in the abdomen.

These symptoms are often accompanied by a significant decrease in appetite, weight loss, disability, and dehydration, however, they are not necessary. Colon cancers can be diagnosed with a range of tests and tests listed earlier. One of the most highly informative methods for establishing a predisposition to oncology can serve as an embryonic cancer antigen, which is considered an indicator of the presence of tumor formation processes in the intestine.

CA 19.9 is a tumor marker of malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and pelvic organs. Its highest sensitivity can be observed in the case of pancreatic cancer, malignant neoplasms in the biliary tract, and also in the liver. In the case of oncology of the gastrointestinal tract and intestines, the content of the tumor marker increases significantly. A slight increase in the indicators of this tumor marker can be observed in such unpleasant diseases as cholecystitis, as well as acute pancreatitis. The intestine is a very important organ of the human body.

The health of not only the gastrointestinal tract but also the entire human body depends on its condition, stable and uninterrupted work, as well as on the state of the microflora.

Therefore, if you begin to notice various symptoms of a pathological nature in yourself, be it constipation, diarrhea, excessive gas formation in the intestines, bloating, a rash on the skin, high fatigue, poor sleep quality, pain in the abdomen, and some others – this is a reason to pay attention your gut health. In this case, you may be advised to study a comprehensive gastrointestinal plan.

Bowel diagnostics in ACNM clinic

Do not be afraid of various methods of bowel medical examination. Now you have information on different diagnostic methods, their implementation, and the necessary preparation in ALASKA CENTER FOR NATURAL MEDICINE CLINIC. Reliable and high-quality equipment, as well as the tact and patience of our employees, will help to carry out the fastest, painless and effective examination. All that is required of the patient is careful and accurate adherence to all the doctor’s advice and recommendations. Together we can restore your intestinal health!